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The questions many non-CBD users frequently ask is: Where does CBD Oil come from and how is CBD oil made?
Before we dive into the vast and complicated world of CBD’s origin from harvest to final CBD product, it is important to understand what CBD oil is.
CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is generally derived directly from the hemp plant, or cannabis sativa plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant.”
That said, CBD is a chemical compound found in cannabis sativa plants. CBD is one of over a hundred identified compounds, called cannabinoids, in the cannabis plant. CBD is actually the most prominent cannabinoid in hemp; although, recently breeders of hemp plants have started to intentionally breed hemp to extract other non-intoxicating chemical compounds, such as CBC, CBN, and CBG. In different genetic plant varieties of cannabis, CBD accounts for more than 65% of its extracts.
For the purposes of this article we are discussing federally legal CBD with less than 0.3% THC. There are combinations of CBD and THC hemp oil that come from the marijuana plant and these require a medical card or prescription from a health care professional.
Industrial hemp, which has been around for centuries and is used to make such things as paper and plastics, is also used to create hemp derived CBD. Hemp farmers have been growing strains of the cannabis sativa hemp plant to for many different purposes.
With the passage of the 2018 farm bill, Industrial hemp with THC levels below 0.3% became federally legal to be used for the production of over the counter CBD products. Hemp farmers have been growing various strains of the hemp plant, and all must be tested to make sure THC levels are at the appropriate level. In addition, the hemp industry has been developing plants with high concentrations of CBD such as PCR hemp (phytocannabinoid rich) which tend to lead to higher concentrated better quality final CBD products.
Industrial hemp used for making CBD is best grown in areas with nutrient rich soil, in a humid climate. It is important that organic farming practices are followed to prevent harsh chemicals and pesticides from contaminating the plants. For these reasons, hemp grown in the United States, in states such as Colorado, Oregon or Kentucky are preferred to hemp importaed from oversees, where best farming practices may not be followed.
When processing industrial hemp to be used for CBD products, the almost the entire plant including the flower, stem, stalk and leaves is used because they all contain cannabinoids, including CBD. the hemp seeds are not used in most CBD Oil extraction as they do not contain any cannabinoids. Hemp seed oil can be used as a carrier oil for the hemp extract, as well as coconut oil, grade seep oil, and even olive oil.
Once harvested the industrial hemp is then put through a filtration process to remove waxes and other residual by products. When filtration is complete, the hemp is now ready to go through the extraction process.
There are two main methods of extracting the cannabinoids from the plant to make a hemp extract. These are:
This considered the premier method as it utilizes carbon dioxide as the solvent and is able to remove waxes and other undesirable by products. In fact, CO2 extraction is used by many players in the food industry including the coffee industry.
This method uses ethanol alcohol as the solvent to remove the cannabinoids from the plant. This method is actually faster than CO2 however there may be residual ethanol in the final product, and ethanol is highly flammable, so this method is much riskier.
Depending on the manufacturer, trace amounts of THC may be left in the final product. These are known as full spectrum CBD oils, because they contain the "full spectrum" of all of the cannabinoids in the plant. As mentioned before, the THC content must be below 0.3%. Other manufacturers will eliminate all of the HC during the extraction process, these final products are know as Broad Spectrum, as they contain all of the cannabinoids except THC. Lastly, some manufacturers will choose to only extract the CBD cannabinoid, this is know as an Isolate. Isolates do not contain any of the other beneficial cannabinoids such as CBG or CBN, and is the least popular form.
Hemp extract is now ready to be formulated into CBD oil and other products such as capsules and topicals. For CBD oil tinctures, the extract is diluted with a carrier oil, such as MCT (coconut oi) or olive oil. Additionally, a flavoring agent may be added such as mint or orange to make the oil more palatable.
For CBD capsules or softgels the hemp extract is also combined with a carrier oil, as the fats in the oil further promote absorption by the body.
For CBD topicals, the hemp extract can be combined with other natural botonicals and ingredients, such as eucalyptus or menthol, which provide a cooling soothing sensation when applied to the skin.
All manufactures of hemp derived CBD should be able to deliver a Certificate of Quality Assurance with each and every batch of their hemp extract, as well as the final product the extract is used in. Additionally, high quality reputable CBD brands such as Palm Organix, will send each batch of product out to an independent third party laboratory to confirm testing for potency and purity. All lab results should be available on the company website, and some companies will provide a QR code on the bottle to access lab reports.
When choosing a quality CBD oil product, be sure to look for a reputable retailer like Palm Organix that sources their CBD from USA High Quality Hemp, 3rd party tests their CBD products, offers great customer service and ships CBD oil products for free.
The statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
This product is not for use by or sale to persons under the age of 18. The statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. All information presented here is not meant as a substitute for or alternative to information from health care practitioners. Please consult your health care professional about potential interactions or other possible complications before using any product. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act require this notice. PLEASE NOTE: Zero THC is defined as (0.0%) no detectable THC, as supported by our lab testing.